The ankle is a joint composed of the ends of the tibia and fibula as well as the small bones of the foot, collectively known as the tarsals. When an ankle sprain occurs, the ligaments in this joint are overstretched or torn. Ankle sprains are common injuries among all people, not just athletes. Mild ankle sprains can typically be treated with rest, cold, and heat. Surgery may be needed for severe sprains where the ligaments are completely torn.
Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL)
The ACL is a ligament in the middle of the knee joint. It prevents the tibia from pushing out in front of the femur. ACL strains and tears are a common sports injury for both amateur and professional athletes. An injury to the ACL may require treatment ranging from rest to surgery, depending on the severity.
ANTERIOR HIP REPLACEMENT
The anterior approach to hip replacement surgery allows the surgeon to reach the hip joint from the front of the hip as opposed to a lateral (side) or posterior (back) direction. An anterior approach allows the hip to be replaced without detaching muscle from the pelvis or femur during surgery. Conventional lateral or posterior surgery typically requires strict postoperative precautions for the patient, including limiting hip motion for six to eight weeks after surgery. Anterior hip replacement, on the other hand, allows patients to bend their hip freely after surgery and bear full weight when comfortable, resulting in a more rapid return to normal function.
In medicine and anatomy, an articulation is a junction between one or more bones or pieces of cartilage. For example, the humerus, radius, and ulna all articulate at the elbow.
A concussion is a type of traumatic brain injury. Concussions range in severity from mild to life-threatening. Caused by a blow to the head or rapid, violent movement of the head, concussions can result in symptoms like fatigue, confusion, nausea, vomiting, and dizziness. However, many concussions exhibit no symptoms. Concussions require professional medical evaluation, and any head injury should always receive prompt medical attention.
CUSTOM KNEE REPLACEMENT (CUSTOM-FIT KNEE)
A custom knee replacement is similar to standard knee implants in that the same types of hardware are used. The difference with a custom knee replacement is that the patient has an MRI of the knee before undergoing surgery. The orthopedist uses specially-designed cutting guides to help remove a precise amount of bone at specific angles to accept the knee replacement implant.
The femur is the thighbone, the only long bone in the upper leg.
The fibula is the smaller of the two long bones in the lower leg. It is sometimes referred to as the calf bone. When standing, the fibula is the outermost (lateral) long bone of the lower leg.
A groin strain is caused by an injury to the adductor muscles of the thigh or any of their tendons. Groin strains usually result from rapid upward movements of the thigh and may be due to overextension or accident. Conservative measures like heat and rest may be sufficient for mild groin strains. In the case of severe groin strains, surgery might be required.
Although not a medical term, “hamstrings” refers to the tendons of the back (posterior) thigh muscles. These muscles allow you to flex your knee and bend your hip. While the hamstring tendons are not used much in everyday activities like walking, more athletic movements such as running and jumping utilize the hamstrings. Therefore, people who are not regularly active may be subject to overstretching the hamstrings. Regular exercise and pre-exercise stretching can help to prevent hamstring injuries.
It is possible to effectively treat many hamstring injuries with conservative measures like rehabilitation therapy and anti-inflammatory medications. More severe hamstring trauma will need to be addressed surgically.
HIP & KNEE REVISIONS
Ten percent of implants will fail and require a second procedure, called revision, to remove the old implants and replace them with new components.
HIP RESURFACING (BIRMINGHAM HIP RESURFACING)
Unlike traditional hip replacement, hip resurfacing does not replace the “ball” of the hip (femur head) with a metal or ceramic ball. Instead, the damaged hip ball is reshaped and capped with a metal prosthesis. The damaged hip socket is fitted with a metal prosthesis — similar to what is used in a conventional hip replacement. Birmingham Hip Resurfacing (BHR) is a brand name for hip resurfacing using an implant from Smith & Nephew.
The humerus is the only long bone of the upper arm, beginning at the shoulder and ending at the elbow.
KNEE – ACL
An ACL injury is the tearing of the anterior cruciate (KROO-she-ate) ligament in your knee. Treatment of an ACL injury may include surgery to replace the torn ligament, along with an intense rehabilitation program.
KNEE REPLACEMENT (TOTAL)
Knee replacement surgery is a procedure that is performed when the knee joint has reached a point when painful symptoms can no longer be controlled with non-operative treatments.
Lateral Collateral Ligament (LCL)
The LCL is a knee ligament responsible for providing stability to the outer, or lateral, area of the knee.
Better known as tennis elbow, lateral epicondylitis is an inflammatory condition caused by overuse of the elbow. It is not limited to just tennis enthusiasts. Other sports and even work-related repetitive motions may cause tennis elbow. The tendons of the forearm become irritated, resulting in pain and stiffness. Lateral epicondylitis can usually be treated with conservative interventions like cold, heat, rest, braces, and over-the-counter medications. Rare, severe cases may require surgery.
The lateral meniscus is located on the outside of the knee. It acts as a bumper and buffer, absorbing shock and playing a role in weight distribution.
A ligament is a length of fibrous connective tissue that attaches two bones or pieces of cartilage. Ligaments can be torn partially or completely, necessitating surgery or rehabilitation.
Medial Collateral Ligament (MCL)
The MCL is the knee ligament responsible for providing stability to the inner, or medial, area of the knee.
The medial meniscus is located on the inside of the knee. It acts as a bumper and buffer, absorbing shock and playing a role in weight distribution.
A meniscus (plural menisci) is a disk of cartilage in the knee. There are two in the human knee, the lateral meniscus and medial meniscus. These disks provide shock absorption and a cushioning effect. They may suffer damage due to age or injury.
Osteoarthritis is a degenerative condition that develops over time. It is caused by the wearing down of protective cartilage. Osteoarthritis is sometimes called degenerative joint disease. In severe cases, OA patients may have “bone on bone” joints where the cushioning cartilage has completely worn away, and the bones are grinding against each other.
In the early stages, orthopedists often choose to treat OA with medications and lubricating injections. When OA has reached the point that it negatively impacts your daily life, joint replacement surgery may be a good choice.
More commonly known as bone spurs, osteophytes form along the edges of a joint. They can be painful and debilitating. An orthopedic surgeon can usually remove osteophytes during an operative procedure.
PARTIAL KNEE REPLACEMENT
Osteoarthritis (OA) may affect all three compartments of your knee. However, it may only affect one or two of these, in which case you may be an appropriate candidate for a partial knee replacement. In this procedure, only the damaged section of your knee is replaced, and your healthy sections are left intact. Partial knee replacements may be unicompartmental (one compartment is replaced) or bicompartmental (two compartments are replaced).
The patella is the bone commonly known as the kneecap. It comprises the knee joint together with various connective tissue, the femur, tibia, and fibula.
Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome
This syndrome causes pain around the front of your knee and is common among runners and other athletes. Although seen more often in women, patellofemoral pain syndrome also appears in men. It is characterized by a dull ache around the kneecap.
Rehabilitation is often enough to correct the problem. In more severe cases, a realignment surgery or arthroscopy to remove damaged cartilage may be necessary.
Posterior Cruciate Ligament (PCL)
The PCL is a ligament in the back of the knee. It is responsible for preventing the knee joint from shifting too far backward.
This tendon attached the quadriceps – a set of four large muscles on the front of the thigh – to the patella, also called the kneecap.
The radius is the thicker of the two forearm long bones. It runs from the elbow to the wrist on the thumb side of the hand.
The rotator cuff is a group of four tendons that surround and stabilize the shoulder joint. The most common symptoms of a rotator cuff problem are pain and weakness. Pain is often felt over the top of the shoulder. Many rotator cuff tears can be treated without surgery, but some require surgical repair to improve pain and strength.
The scapula is the medical term for the shoulder blade. It connects to the clavicle, or collarbone, as well as to the upper arm bone, the humerus. It forms the shoulder joint with these two other bones.
The term “shin splints” refers to pain or irritation along the inner (medial) side of the shinbone (tibia). One medical term for this condition is medial tibial stress syndrome. Shin splints are common for runners and joggers. Shin splints are caused by irritation of the muscles, bones, and connective tissue in this area from repetitive movement.
Rest is often enough to resolve shin splints. However, persistent shin splint symptoms should be investigated by an orthopedist. The problem could be due to osteoarthritis, flat feet, or other conditions.
Many people know someone with an artificial knee or hip joint. Shoulder replacement is less common, but it is just as successful in relieving joint pain. About 23,000 people have the surgery each year. This compares to more than 700,000 Americans a year who have knee and hip replacement surgery.
SHOULDER – ROTATOR CUFF
The rotator cuff is a group of four tendons that surround and stabilize the shoulder joint. The most common symptoms of a rotator cuff problem are pain and weakness. Pain is often felt over the top of the shoulder. Many rotator cuff tears can be treated without surgery but some require surgical repair to improve pain and strength.
A tendon is a connective tissue structure that attaches muscle to bone. Like ligaments, tendons can suffer injuries that may require rehabilitation or surgery.
The tibia is the shin bone, the larger of the two lower leg long bones. When standing, the tibia is on the inside (medial) of the calf.
Total Knee Replacement
Knee replacement surgery is a procedure that is performed when the knee joint has reached a point when painful symptoms can no longer be controlled with non-operative treatments. A total knee replacement, also called a tricompartmental arthroplasty (TKA), is a procedure that replaces all three knee compartments with prosthetic hardware.
The ulna is the narrower of the two long bones in the forearm. The ulna begins at the elbow and continues to the wrist on the little finger side.